Category Archives: Dog Training

Philosophical and Social Implications of Dog Training in Society and on Communities

I started this article for a new project I am working on. As I was writing, it occurred to me that pet owners and others may benefit from some of the information.

Let me start with a synopsis of my bio. I first started training when I was around 11 years old. In high school I was fortunate to train with William Koehler. After high school I started training dogs in Long Beach and Paramount California. I worked for several security companies and even managed one when I was around 19 or 20. I have trained police dogs and dogs for television and film. In the early 80s I started doing positive reinforcement training using food. At that time training with food was very much discouraged by most dog trainers. In the mid 80s I had a cable TV program and I have written two books.

The Benefits Of Dog Training

Showing the benefits of dog training - this Labrador Retriever is sitting nicely at the door
Showing the benefits of dog training – this Labrador Retriever is sitting nicely at the door

Dog training can teach people how to better manage behavior. While we are learning about managing our dog’s behavior we are also learning about managing behavior in general. The style of training used will orient a person towards different aspects of behavior management. A soft style of training will teach soft styles of getting behavior. A hard style will encourage a more straight to the point hard style of behavior management.

While these two styles of behavior management can be thought of as opposites, they each contain a bit of the other. I like to think of each style a bit like the concept illustrated in the yin yang symbol. Even in the black there is some white and in the white there is some black. One training style can be thought of as feminine and the other masculine. It is good to know about each style of behavior management, even if you prefer one over the other.

If you prefer the soft style of training, that’s great. For society to evolve, the soft style is probably going to be the one that leads toward survival of our species and the world. If you prefer the hard style that can be good too, others will appreciate your ability to take control and lead as well as value your effectiveness. We need to understand that we live in a culture that’s ruled by the hard style of behavior management. When navigating life we need to be aware that our culture relies on primitive and punitive rules more than on love and acceptance. I also enjoy history so let me make an observation and comparison about this in relation to the prevailing religion in the United States.

Religion controls lot of our behavior so I think it’s appropriate to mention it in this section. The moral rules that govern society are more in line with a 4th century army general = Constantinian, than the Christianity taught by Christ. While Christ could be aggressive such as when he gave exploitive bankers a thorough whipping, he was primarily an advocate and promoter of the soft style of behavior management. As world cultures continue to mature those working toward a just society need to refine and integrate soft styles of behavior management while navigating a world controlled by the hard. Training with a reinforcement oriented system can show us the way to a better world.

Responsibility

It’s every dog owner's responsibility to have their dog under control
It’s every dog owner’s responsibility to have their dog under control

As I have mentioned in my Book “Best Friends Learning Together” I think dog owners need to be more responsible that other citizens. We need to set an example and be at the forefront of keeping dogs a socially acceptable part of our culture. This is an area that encompasses the larger culture we live in as well as the micro dog cultures we inhabit. As B.F. Skinner alluded to, we all come under the control of our culture. We need to make sure there are positive dog cultures out there to support the further development of dogs and humanity.

Just as animal rights initiatives have changes social norms so too will new forms of dog training. It is very likely that rules from dog training will play an important role in the development of our nation’s cultural. The foundation for these changes were made in the 50s and 60s, but putting them into practice is easier said than done. I believe many of these practices will start in dog sub cultures, then work their way into the larger national culture. The difficult part will be for the positive dog cultures to not become the thing they want to replace. This is an interesting phenomena that occurs when groups begin to feel self righteous. It can be observed not only people but to some degree in animals too.

What behavior is essential for being a good neighbor?
One practice that makes dogs more socially acceptable and helps to safeguard the health of others is picking up after our dogs. If we expect others to accept our pets we need to be good neighbors and make sure our dogs are not a nuisance. Training your dog can also help by ensuring the dog in your care has good manners when in public. Dog training will also decreases the chance a dog will be aversive or disrupt neighbors when it is at home as well.

Dog Ownership And Public Health
Dog owners can play an important role in public health. The whole adopt from a dog pound movement was really in response to a government problem that started as a solution to a public health policy. When the government decided to remove dogs from their natural environment and impound them they created several other problems. You need to understand that caring for and housing a lot of dogs cost a lot of money. Impounded dogs also created a big public relation problem. It turns out the public was not happy with dogs being scooped up and killed in mass. To solve these problems local governments used animal rights groups to promote cost reduction spay, neuter, and adopt programs. People who are interested in animal welfare have an incentive to help the animals and local governments have a huge incentive to save money. Putting the blame of overcrowded dog pounds and the killing of impounded dogs on others has also helped solve some of their Public Relation Problems.

As a society we need to be careful with our animal control policies or we’re likely to create some undesirable long term side effects. Many of these policy changes have roughly paralleled a PR strategy to change the term dog pound to the euphemism animal shelter. But I believe a rose by any other name smells the same. Over the years it has been very interesting to watch animal control policies develop. It is also insightful to observe how other countries are addressing the same issues.

When the government’s response to animal centric health issue collided with public sentiment we saw the impact dogs can have on culture. However, I believe it’s economics more than anything that’s helping to change the dog pound system. Official policies and public sentiment both have positive and negative effects on our dog populations. Depending on future policies some of the negative effects could be very long lasting. The positive effects can also be long lasting. Hopefully the positive benefits will not be drowned out by the punitive nature of society.

Zoonotic Diseases
Zoonotic diseases are animal disease that can be transmitted to humans. While most people don’t think too much about these, there are some that need to be considered. There are also new diseases evolving the capacity to cross the species barrier all the time. Developing an awareness of zoonotic diseases and good animal husbandry practices plus good hygiene will allow pet owners to be part of a public health solution. There is a growing movement called the One Health Initiative that I think all people should be familiar with.

The One Health Initiative
This is the wikipedia.org definition of One Health
One Health has been defined as “the collaborative effort of multiple disciplines — working locally, nationally, and globally — to attain optimal health for people, animals and the environment.”

Many of the serious diseases of humanity are those that started in animals and crossed the species barrier to humans. I think one of the biggest reasons to be proactive with our animals is to make society better for both people and animals.

The single most important precautions dog owners can take to keep society safe while safeguarding their dog’s well being is to properly vaccinate their dogs.

Social And Cultural Implications of Dogs In The Community

Well behaved dogs have a cohesive effect on local communities
Well behaved dogs have a cohesive effect on local communities

Well behaved dogs have a cohesive effect on local communities. Where anti social dogs tend to have a disruptive effect on the community. This was clearly illustrated with a trip I recently took to a local park. I had a very amiable dog and another person at the park had an out of control and very aggressive dog that they could not handle. The aggressive dog made it so I had to leave the park and I’m sure other people with dogs left soon after I did. That one irresponsible dog owner disrupted the tranquility of every dog owner who was visiting the park. In fact this one out of control dog had the potential to disrupt the lives of the whole neighborhood. I’m sure it also intimidated many non dog owners too, especially those with small children. In contrast my dog was happy to see other dogs as well as people and encouraged positive social interaction with people.

As people see each other in the neighborhood on a regular basis they get to know each other. This begins to form the network that is so important for a sense of community. I would venture to say that in general people who walk their dogs on a regular basis know more of their neighbors than those who do not have dogs. Those who walk their dogs also know the neighborhood better and can tell you about the condition of the neighborhood and what kind of people live in the immediate area. We also know about safety issues, park activities, if park sprinklers are working properly (a big deal during drought in the south west) and who the homeless are and when they’re at the park. Dog walkers are the eyes and ears of the neighborhood.

Getting back to health, walking a dog has many health benefits. Walking the dog is a great way to encourage not only more social engagement within the community, but also a way to improve the health of the community. I know many people with diabetes who are suppose to do more walking. They tend to enjoy walking more if they have a well behaved dog to share the walk with.

Teaching about responsible pet ownership also improves the quality of life in a community by helping to control nuisance dog behavior and can provide guidance for long term harmony between animals and people, which ultimately impacts both public safety and public health.

By studying dogs we can get a better picture of natural systems. When we understand natural systems we will be able to make better decisions. Making good decisions about natural systems helps create well planned policies that have long range implications.

If you know about dogs you know about life!
Andrew Ledford

One or Two Dogs and Behavior Problems Associated With Multi-Dog Families

What are some problems encountered when more than one dog lives in same house?

By Andrew Ledford 714-827-4058

Many people believe having two dogs will reduce behavior problems. The logic is two or more dogs will keep boredom away. But is it really true that the companionship of another dog will keep them out of mischief? People who are away from the home a lot are especially likely to get two dogs at the same time. In some scenarios having two dogs to keep each other company will work. However, I’ve seen many dog behavior problems amplified by having two or more dogs in the house.

Two German Shepherd Dogs in a Board and train program
Two German Shepherd Dogs in a Board and train program

Why would this happen? One reason is because there will be some competition between the dogs. Even mild competition can exaggerate destructive behavior. Competition and the desire to play tug can result in destroyed pillows, carpets, and other fun to play with items.

Competitive group play can also be seen in digging. If you have ever watched a group of dogs hunting rats you will see some intensive group excavation. I have observed this most vividly while living in the desert where there are a lot of kangaroo rats that live in sandy soil. I have seen the same hunting strategy without the digging in feral dogs that hunt on more solid terrain. Even if your dog is not chasing rodents it may like to play as though it is. In Southern California I have seen quite a few dogs that like to dig up the big white grubs living under the lawn. Other favorite digging targets can be sprinklers and sprinkler wires.

There are also some undesirable social behavior patterns that dogs in a two dog household are more likely to display. One of these is jumping on people. I have noticed that two dog households have dogs with a higher tendency to jump on people. I think this could be due to the dogs jumping on each other throughout the day. Jumping on others becomes a standard form of social interaction. While the dogs know people and dogs are different they tend to use jumping to interact with both. Even when the dogs are taught not to jump the training tends to break down faster because the dogs are highly rewarded for jumping on each other.

Barreling into people can have a similar cause as jumping on people. Many dogs delight in rough play and would like to interact with their humans the same as they do with their doggy friends. Fortunately these behaviors can be modified and managed with a well designed training program.

Another problem I see in households with two or more dogs is related to having dogs from the same litter. I have observed that when siblings are raised together it’s not uncommon to have one brave dog and one overly sensitive dog. Bringing out an overly sensitive dog who lives with a brother or sister can be time consuming. However the benefits will outweigh the effort. In the process of making the dog more emotionally hardy you can also teach it to be more independent. Being overly dependent on a brother or sister is another problem encountered with two or more dogs from the same litter.

Being overly dependent on another dog can lead to separation anxiety. Developing separation anxiety is especially prevalent when siblings are raised together. Over dependence on another dog is likely to occur when any young dogs are raised together. It might not seem like this will be much of a problem, until you need to take one to the veterinarian or in for grooming. Sibling overdependence is something I teach dog owners how to manage when working with two dog families. To get the best results it is ideal to start a training program when the dogs are still puppies, under 16 weeks old.

Best practices for having a two dog family.

Even when you have dogs that are different ages in the same house it’s best to get one dog at a time. Get the first dog trained and then introduce the second dog. You may still have problems, but statistically you will have fewer problems. You’ll also find that if behavior problems are encountered it’s easier to correct or train one dog at a time.

If you are getting a new dog you may also like to read my article about how a dog settles into its new home – New Dog Syndrome

Wishing you the best in dogs and the best in life,
Andrew Ledford
Southern California Dog training
714-827-4058

Dog Training Season Begins 2013

Leash Training a Pit Bull in North Orange County
Leash Training a Pit Bull in North Orange County

Families with dogs this is the beginning of the dog training season. Yes that’s right, starting today here in California and many other states we get an extra hour of daylight with the beginning of daylight saving time.

Now my evening classes will start being done with a little more light, instead of being done when it’s dark.

Yes that’s right, daylight savings time starts today. Here in California and many other states we get an extra hour of daylight. That means it will be light when people get home from work. Which means more people will be spending time with their dogs after work.

Spring is the time of the year when people spend more time outside with their dogs. When spring is in the air people are walking their dogs and taking them to the park. Don’t you think it is a good idea to spend some of that time teaching your dog a few useful skills?

Give me a call and we can start a dog training program tailored to your dog’s personality and the dynamics of your household.

Wishing you the best in dogs and the best in life,
Andrew Ledford
Southern California Dog training
714-827-4058

 

How Do You And Society View Controlling Others and Controlling Dogs?

I am beginning to think I have opened a subject too big to cover in a dog training blog. This series would be best on a Philosophy and culture website or my personal site. While the article is about training it goes beyond training. The subject involves control in general and to what degree are we willing to force our desires onto another. What form does our preferred style of force take?

It appears that at least some to these posts will not be focused on dog training, but general ideas related to controlling others. I feel it is important to consider these issues when training our dogs. Control will come up as a major theme when you embark on a dog training program and even after you have quit formal training. Training never ends. You are training your dog anytime you interact with it. Your dog is always learning about its environment.

The Dogs Environment Matters in Dog Training and in Controlling Behavior
The Dogs Environment Matters in Dog Training and in Controlling Behavior

How the Environment controls behavior is a worthy area of consideration. The environment plays a part in controlling many aspects of dog training, self governance, and interacting with others. The Environment is a huge controlling variable.

The “Is Positive Reinforcement Best” series is setting the stage to work through the linguistic wrangling of a contentious question. I want to find an answer that will cut through the emotional clutter. Originally I intended this to be a short series of posts. Now I don’t know how long it will be. As I ponder the illusions and practices of controlling our dogs the project has become much more interesting.

One of the interesting attributes of dog training is it can take on many of the roles and functions found throughout society. It is a mix of Culture, Philosophy, Strategy, Science, Economics, Mythos and Personal Beliefs.

Dog training encompasses the human experience. Dog training gives us a way to both express and model what it is to be human. We can see the best and the worst of humanity in the human/dog experience. Dogs are micro cultures within a household and they are also players in a macro culture influencing world politics.

Edshu The Dog Trainer
Edshu The Dog Trainer

I have a wide area of interests so I may reference ideas that are culturally different than what is familiar to most. The figure of Edshu is from an African tradition. The Edshu story I am most familiar with is his causing mischief by wearing a red and black hat. It is quite common for me to don my imaginary black and red hat when I have some question that needs to be answered. In this series I am afraid I am going to wear that hat. So please forgive me I don’t want anyone to be judged or condemned because of my hat or my insight. The Edshu story as I learned it is a little different than the wikipedia version.

So many blogs I read are the same old thing; they just repeat what other people say.

I have read that when people explain what others want to know about it’s called being a thought leader. I may do that in this series of articles, but I hope to accomplish something more. Hopefully I can do more than explain an aging argument or an entrenched dogma. I hope to add new meaning to an old question. Find new answers and help people gain new insight. I do not desire to be a thought leader as much as I try to be a thought innovator. You wouldn’t want me to just rehash the same old thing would you?

When I first started training with food it was a time when most people condemned positive reinforcement training
When I first started training with food it was a time when most people condemned positive reinforcement training

One problem with innovation is it can be controversial. When I started using positive reinforcement, I was constantly told I could not do that with dog training. I took a lot of heat for my training style and my views of how best to control the dogs I worked with. Now some years later there is a new all positive reinforcement culture that has developed some interesting qualities of its own.

Until next time

Wishing you the best in dogs and the best in life,
Andrew Ledford
Southern California Dog training
714-827-4058

Questions About All Positive Reinforcement Dog Training Is It really Best For Our Pets?

 

Questions About All Positive Reinforcement Training

I want to address a very common misunderstanding about dog training. I have written about the subject of all positive reinforcement training and using aversives in training quite a bit. I always think I have nothing more to say about it, then some time passes and I read an article that gets the old wheels moving again.

Training Clickers Are Often Used By Positive Reinforcement Dog Trainers
Training Clickers Are Often Used By Positive Reinforcement Dog Trainers

Usually it is an article by a dog trainer. I generally don’t pay much attention to what other dog blogs are saying about this. Now that I have dog blogging friends on Google Plus I read a lot more general dog blogs. I find it interesting that the all positive reinforcement doctrine has moved to become such a pervasive dogma. It does sound warm and fuzzy, but is it really best for our pets? I also have to ask are the promises of all positive reinforcement really true?

There are also other questions that need to be asked about the promises of all positive reinforcement. There is the moral question, when is it okay to cause discomfort? Another question that I toil with and one where I usually differ from most is, what are my client’s personal rules? My strategy for helping people is different than many trainers I know of.

Slip Collars Are Often Associated With Trainers Who Use Negative Reinforcement
Slip Collars Are Often Associated With Trainers Who Use Negative Reinforcement

If this wasn’t enough I have even more questions. Are all aversives bad? Is there ever a time when an aversive is not aversive? Is it possible that what is aversive to an individual now could actually become something positive in the future?

There is also the fact that our society is based in punishing others and getting revenge more than loving our enemies. While people may want to be positive reinforcement oriented our society insists on a punishment based orientation.

To me all of these are interesting questions.

I plan on exploring these issues in a series of future posts

Wishing you the best in dogs and the best in life,
Andrew Ledford
Southern California Dog training
714-827-4058

Training a Pit Bull in North Orange County

Leash Training a Pit Bull in North Orange County
Leash Training a Pit Bull in North Orange County. Notice the leash grip. Even when relaxed maintain good form

I have a few picture of a pit bull I am training in the North Orange County area of California. This dog does present some challenges. The first is gaining the dogs trust. Getting this dog to trust me took a little effort. While she is not exactly happy to see me she does tolerate me and is responding to training. You will see in one of the photos she is taking a treat from me. Although you may also notice she’s displaying is a bit of avoidance while getting the treat.

This dog usually shows more avoidance in the house and around its owner than it does when I have her by myself and away from the house. If you have a difficult to train dog give me a call for a free phone evaluation.

Treat Training a timid Pit Bull In the OC
Treat Training a timid Pit Bull in the OC It is worth noting my positioning. I am turned to the side one hand behind my back and head away from the dog. I am presenting a nonthreatening posture while maintaining safety

Wishing you the best in dogs and the best in life,
Andrew Ledford
So Cal Dog training
714-827-4058

Beginning Leash Training With An Aggressive Dog

I was working a dog in North Orange County tonight and got to thinking back when I first started training her. This particular dog is one of the bully breeds and she is not all that friendly with most strangers. The training techniques in this article go over how I started leash handling with this particular dog. I have to say I did a lot of just getting to know the dog before we started the leash training.

When I first started working with her on leash I did what is called a loyalty transfer. This is where you walk next to the owner and the dog and then the owner give the new handler the leash and falls back.

Chow Chow With Muzzle
Chow Chow With Muzzle

The first part of this exercise is walking next to the owner and the dog without getting bit. If the owner/handler can control their dog, not getting bit is usually not all that difficult. With unpredictable dogs or where there may be an accident I recommend the dog wear a muzzle. The photo is of a Chow Chow I worked the same way. However I thought the chow might bite more seriously than the pit bull. Not that I wasn’t a little extra cautious with the pitty. But the pit bull showed more avoidance than the Chow did.

Once the dog will let me walk next to the handler I’ll have the handler do right about turns. How this is accomplished depends on how much experience the handler has along with how much control they have over their dog.

During the right about turn the dog is close to me and moving by me at the same time. Hopefully in a way where the handler can move the dog further away if it should decide to sample some Andrew Ledford flesh. Also this move should put me in a position to move out of the dog’s reach, if everything works as a choreographed move.

If you are doing this with an inexperienced handler don’t plan on it going real smooth. An inexperienced handler often will let the dog get too close or turn at the wrong time. Both of these can have negative consequences and should be anticipated.

Once the dog is doing nicely at the turns I will begin walking on the outside of the handler/dog team. The trainer needs to be able to read the dog at this point and judge the proper distance.

When the dog is somewhat comfortable with the trainer waking on the outside it’s time for the trainer to resume the standard position. From the stander potion of the trainer next to the handle the transfer is made.

After the transfer is done a whole new dynamic is introduced along with a different set of handling skills.

Wishing you the best in dogs and the best in life,
Andrew Ledford
So Cal Dog training
714-827-4058

How Important Is It To Hold The Leash Properly For Training Your Dog

While working with a new client I was once again reminded how important holding the leash properly is for training your dog. I use four standard leash grips and one prompt.

  1. The alpha grip
  2. The double alpha grip or baseball bat grip
  3. The drop grip
  4. The left hand check (this is for dogs walking on the left side)
  5. Left hand prompt used with beginning dog that walk in front of the handler.
Double Hand Leash Grip Used For Dog Training The Alpha Grip
Double Hand Leash Grip Used For Dog Training – The Alpha Grip

The first four are most important for controlling wild out of control dogs. These five essential leash grips are important for all type of leash training. I use the same grips with slip collars, pinch collars, martingales, harnesses, and head collars such as the gentle leader. While the use of each type of restraint is different the leash grips used remains the same.

As I travel around the area I live I can’t help but notice a large number of pregnant women. I think we are in the midst of a mini baby boom. How does this tie into leash grips? Well, I have modified some of the basic grips to specifically work for pregnant women. If you are pregnant and especially if you are in the later stages of pregnancy I suggest you talk to your doctor before you do any dog training. Getting your doctors approval is even more important if you are training a large dog. Even if you have a small dog and we choose to use a target stick for training, leash handling is still a significant part of dog handling.

You will notice in the target stick training video I use a clicker. It may be of interest to know I have also developed leash handling protocols for working with the clicker as well. I awhile back I was working with a client on some target stick training who had worked with a fairly famous clicker trainer. What amazed me was that the clicker trainer never taught them proper leash handling for clicker training.

When you work with me you will see that I have broken all the training techniques into step by step procedures. This way anyone who practices can learn proper dog handling and training skills.

Wishing you the best in dogs and the best in life,
Andrew Ledford
So Cal Dog training
714-827-4058

Potty Training In The Rain

Southern California doesn’t get a whole lot of rain. When we do get rain a lot of our dogs don’t like it much. The dog that is staying with me for a homestay board and train program is one of those dogs.

It seems she doesn’t mind going out in the rain for fun, but she does not like going potty when it’s wet. Her finicky potty behavior means I need to spend a lot more time watching her when it’s wet outside. This is another case of behavior management. If I don’t have any other commitments or if I can reschedule other commitments I’ll wait for her to go. Along with waiting I’ll also offer a little encouragement such as exercise or play and more frequent visits to her potty spot.

If I have other commitments I can’t work around I’ll take this particular dog out for a walk. She will always go on a walk. While the walk is not teaching her to go in the target potty area it is not as much of a setback as an accident in the house.

My Favorite Dog Training Rain Coat
My Favorite Dog Training Rain Coat

The recent rain has been very light. When it’s raining, shall I say, like cats and dogs, it’s best to be prepared before you head out the door. During moderate to heavy rain I will have a rain coat by the door along with my hat.

My hat is always by the door. If you know me you’ll know I think a hat is essential equipment. There are several low overhangs in the yard and it seems if I forget to wear my hat I always hit my head on one of those. Even in a light rain a hat is mighty handy for keeping the mega water drops coming off the trees from running down your neck.

Other helpful rain gear includes rubber boots or rain shoes and an umbrella. I find an umbrella gets in the way of handling the dog so I don’t use one. But for dogs that take a very long time they may have a purpose.

That is gear for getting out into the rain, but how about coming back inside? I recommend at least having a rug or towel down for the dog to step on as it comes in the door. Some people like having a towel by the door to dry the dog as well. It’s better to take a few minutes to dry the dog as opposed to having the dog shake dog smell water on the walls and furniture.

The take away is think about what you will need before you need it. Plan ahead and get everything ready so you’ll have all of your training supplies and equipment ready at the right time.

Wishing you the best in dogs and the best in life,
Andrew Ledford
So Cal Dog training
714-827-4058

 

Persistence and Training Your Dog

Persistence And Dog Training
Persistence And Dog Training

I am working with a large and a fairly active dog at the moment. What made me think of writing this post is that she has a short attention span and she needs to continuously be reminded to behave. Let me clarify that, she responds to her environment and displays behaviors all the time. What I need to do is remind her to behave in a desirable manner. 714-827-4058

As I work with her I’m reminded that persistence is one of the most important elements to training difficult dogs. Being persistent means getting up every time the dog is doing something it shouldn’t. You need to be willing to get up and insist the dog do the right thing. You do not need to be overbearing, just persistent.

Being Persistence Makes Dogs Well Behaved
Being Persistence Makes Dogs Well Behaved

Being persistent also means stopping what you are doing to reward the dog when it’s doing what you desire.

Sometime the dog needs to wear its leash so you can conveniently and calmly make the dog behave. Other times it means always having food rewards available so you can increase the amount of time the dog performs the appropriate behavior. Toy management is also a good tactic for encouraging good behavior with some dogs.

A girl I once knew called my persistence

Being persistent at my house with a aboard and training dog
Being persistent at my house with a aboard and training dog

being stubborn. I never thought of persistence as an undesirable trait until I met her. That is what happens when you’re life revolves around dogs. Training dogs for a living is not an easy task.

I often sleep like there is a new baby in the house. There are feeding schedules than need to be maintained and constant cleaning. Then there is the potty training. Making sure the dog stays out of the trash and doesn’t chew the house or wiring is an ever present duty. I believe it is much like raising a small child.

The take away from this is, be more stubborn than your dog. Or you could say be more persistent than your dog.

Wishing you the best in dogs and the best in life,
Andrew Ledford
So Cal Dog training
714-827-4058